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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2016
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 115-164

Online since Monday, August 29, 2016

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EDITORIAL  

An insight into the role of dentists against the new epidemic of “Drug Abuse” p. 115
Rahul Hegde
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.189341  PMID:27795643
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The facial skeleton: Armor to the brain? p. 116
Satishkumar G Patil, Bindu S Patil, Udupikrishna Joshi, Soumya Allurkar, Sharanabasappa Japatti, Ashwini Munnangi
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.180318  PMID:27795644
Background: With the development of urban setting worldwide, the major issue of concern is the increase in the mortality rate in the population due to road traffic accidents. The face, being the most exposed region is susceptible to injuries and maybe associated with injuries to the adjacent neuro-cranium. The literature has conflicting views on the relationship between facial fractures and head injuries with some authors opining that the facial skeleton cushions the brain while some other authors claim that the facial fractures act as indicators for head injuries. Objectives: To analyze the correlation between the facial fractures and head injuries and to assess if the facial skeleton acts to protect the brain from injury. Patients and Methods: A prospective study that included patients who reported to the emergency department of Basaveswar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga, during 2 years, between August 2013 and July 2015 was conducted. A total of 100 patients with facial fractures were enrolled in the study. Results: Head injuries were sustained by 51 patients in the study. Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 20–29 with a male to female ratio of 10.1:1. The mandible was the most frequently fractured bone in the facial skeleton followed by the zygomatico-maxillary complex. A majority (96%) of patients with head injuries had fractures of either the upper third or the middle third of the face. Contusions and pneumocephalus were the most common head injury encountered. The Glasgow Coma Scale score was significantly lower in patients with associated head injuries as compared to those patients with facial trauma alone. The mortality rate in the study was 2% with both the victims having sustained middle third and upper third fractures respectively with associated head injuries. Conclusion: The facial skeleton does not act to cushion the brain from injury but, in fact, the facial trauma victims should be considered potential head injury patients.
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A bibliometric analysis of two PubMed-indexed high-impact factor endodontic journals: A comparison of India with other countries p. 121
Lora Mishra, Prajna Pattnaik, Manoj Kumar, Sonia Aggarwal, Satya Ranjan Misra
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.189342  PMID:27795645
Aim: The present study was conducted with an aim to determine the number and trends of published articles in the International Endodontic Journal (IEJ) and Journal of Endodontics (JOE) from 2009 to 2014. Settings and Designs: A retrospective observational study was conducted for IEJ and JOE. Subjects and Methods: All issues of IEJ and JOE were electronically and hand searched for the following parameters: Amount of papers, publication year, affiliated organizations, and countries. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were organized and analyzed using software SPSS version 21.0; descriptive statistics was used. Results: A total of 872 articles were analyzed in the IEJ and JOE with 1606 papers. Brazil had the largest number of articles (170) mainly in IEJ, and the USA (350) in JOE. Indians published more of their research in JOE than IEJ. Conclusions: Original articles in endodontic publication from different universities in India have considerably increased, showing that research is becoming more important.
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Proximity of maxillary posterior teeth roots to maxillary sinus and adjacent structures using Denta scan® p. 126
Ramesh Ram Fry, Dinesh Chand Patidar, Samta Goyal, Aayush Malhotra
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.189339  PMID:27795646
Aim: The study aimed to investigate the proximity of maxillary posterior teeth roots to maxillary sinus and measure the distance of maxillary posterior teeth roots and the sinus floor as well as the thickness of bone between the roots and alveolar cortical bone using Denta scan®. Materials and Methods: The study samples include Denta scan® images of fifty patients with normally erupted bilateral maxillary first premolar to maxillary second molar. The vertical relationship of each tooth root with maxillary sinus is classified into four types of Denta scan® images (based on the classification by Jung in 2009). The distance between the sinus floor and root, and the bone thickness between the root and alveolar cortical plate will be measured and analyzed. Conclusion: The buccal root of the maxillary molars was more commonly protruded into the maxillary sinus. Among the roots of maxillary posterior teeth, mesiobuccal root of first molar and palatal root of second premolar were found in close proximity to the floor of maxillary sinus. The bone thickness on the buccal aspect to the root was significantly thinner in the maxillary first premolar and maxillary first molar as compared to other maxillary posterior teeth roots. Clinical Significance: Knowledge of anatomical relationship between the maxillary posterior teeth and maxillary sinus guides us not only in proper preoperative treatment planning but also avoids the possible complications encounter while performing the minor oral surgical procedures involving maxillary posterior teeth, which are close to the maxillary sinus.
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Erosive effects of pediatric liquid medicinal syrups on primary enamel: An in vitro comparative study p. 131
Parimala Kulkarni, Ayushi Anand, Arpana Bansal, Ankur Jain, Utkarsh Tiwari, Suchi Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.189338  PMID:27795647
Context: The use of liquid medicinal syrups in childhood is high owing to the reasons that children suffer from illness quite often. The acidic component in the formulations may cause erosion to the dental tissues. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the erosive potential of pediatric liquid medicinal syrups on the deciduous teeth. Subjects and Methods: A total of sixty extracted/exfoliated noncarious deciduous molars were used. Four medical syrups were used (viz., 1 - artificial saliva [control], 2 - Ferium XT, 3 - Crocin syrup, 4 - Ambrolite-D) and the teeth were equally divided into the four groups (n = 15) for the immersion cycle, following which the teeth were examined for surface microhardness at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc analysis were applied. Results: The time and immersion media interaction demonstrated that antitussives produced a significant and gradual loss of surface microhardness on all days (viz., 7, 14, 21, and 28 days), but a statistically significant difference was seen only between 7th and 28th day (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The knowledge of the erosive potential of commonly used syrups is mandatory as erosion in children teeth may be associated with dental hypersensitivity, loss of the occlusal vertical dimension, eating difficulties, poor esthetics, pulp exposure, and abscesses. Mouth rinsing with water after taking the medication; addition of calcium, fluoride, or phosphate to formulations; and consumption of the medication at meal times have been recommended to avoid tooth damage that is caused by the regular use of medication.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Review of orofacial considerations of systemic sclerosis or scleroderma with report of analysis of 3 cases p. 134
Arati Panchbhai, Sangita Pawar, Anuradha Barad, Zamzam Kazi
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.186702  PMID:27795648
Scleroderma (skleros; hard, and derma; skin), is currently known as systemic sclerosis due to its progressive nature and widespread tissue involvement. It is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. Thickening of the skin is the hallmark of the disease. The patient education for self-care and multidisciplinary approach would be needed to manage the condition. The article presents the review of orofacial considerations in scleroderma with a report of analysis of orofacial manifestations 3 cases.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Pretrigeminal neuralgia p. 140
Sanjeev Jindal, Anshu Singla
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.189340  PMID:27795649
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CASE REPORTS Top

Peripheral ossifying fibroma: A rare case affecting maxillary region p. 141
Sahana Ashok, Anish Ashok Gupta, KP Ashok, Shubhangi Ashok Mhaske
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.186701  PMID:27795650
Focal gingival enlargements are a diverse group of lesions with almost similar clinical presentation but varied etiology and histopathology. The actual cause of peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) has been debated over many years. POFs are usually seen in childhood and younger ages. There is a slight female predilection. It is usually localized, rarely generalized. Usually, the treatment option is only surgical excision with minimal chances of recurrence. Here, we report a case of POF of the right maxillary posterior region with a review of literature.
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Human immunodeficiency virus associated plasmablastic lymphoma: A case report p. 144
Dinkar Desai, Siddharth Pandit, Shiny Jasphin, Akhil S Shetty
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.186699  PMID:27795651
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the third common malignant lesion of the oral region. Plasmablastic lymphomas are rare, aggressive neoplasms occurring mostly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individual which accounts for approximately 2.6% of all NHL. It usually presents as a diffuse growth and with diffuse pattern of histological presentation. It is very difficult to differentiate this lymphoma from other NHL. Immunohistochemical evaluation of various markers is an important criteria of the diagnostic protocol. Here, we describe a case of plasmablastic lymphoma in a 50-year-old female HIV-infected patient. The diagnosis was based on histopathological examination and immunophenotyping.
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“Antihemophilic factor is not the only answer for all factor VIII deficiencies.” Case report of odontogenic infection in a patient with hemophilia A, complicated by factor VIII inhibitors, and managed by transfusion of antihemophilic factor and factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity p. 149
KM Sudheesh, K. S. N. Siva Bharani, HY Kiran, Suresh Hanagavadi
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.186700  PMID:27795652
Dental extraction in hemophiliacs with acquired inhibitors is always a risky procedure, which often presents a lot of problems associated with bleeding. A known case of hemophilia A complicated with factor VIII inhibitors and having odontogenic infection was successfully managed by transfusion of factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity (FEIBA) and antihemophilic factor. Past medical history was significant for multiple factor VIII transfusions. Bethesda assay done to identify inhibitors revealed low titer factor VIII inhibitors. Extraction of the involved tooth was done after transfusion of FEIBA with low-dose protocols. Minimal bleeding was noted after extraction which was controlled by local measures. FEIBA was proven to be highly effective, and no side effects of the product were observed.
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Craniofacial ciliopathies: An expanding oral disease spectrum - a review of literature and a case report p. 153
Jigna V Raja, ML Asha, G Arun Kumar, Anupama V Sattigeri, Diksha Malhotra
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.180315  PMID:27795653
For all intents and purposes, craniofacial development is initiated as soon as the anteroposterior axis of an embryo is established. Although the neural crest receives a significant amount of attention, craniofacial tissue has more patterning information than other tissues of the body. New studies have further clarifi ed the contribution of ciliary epithelia as a source of patterning information for the face. In this paper, we review the craniofacial anomalies in patients with ciliopathies, in which orofacial region is a pivotal recognition of the disorder. Also, a case report of a patient with suspected ciliopathy has been presented along with a logical approach for diagnosis of such disorders.
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Entrapped foreign body: A diagnostic muddle for the radiologist p. 158
Ajmal Mohamed, Beena Varma, Nidhin J Valappila, S Aravind Meena
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.180316  PMID:27795654
Exact localization of foreign body is important for planning the treatment required for its retrieval without much tissue damage. Plain film radiography is the initial screening modality used for the detection of suspected foreign body. However, about one-third of all the foreign bodies are missed in the initial radiographic examination. In case of a wooden foreign body, only 15% are well-visualized on plain radiographs and are, therefore, often missed or misdiagnosed. Hence, the different radiographic technique should be used to localize the object instead of relying on a single radiographic image. Here, we present a unique case of foreign body entrapped in the soft tissue appeared initially as osteomyelitis and fracture of the mandible in the digital panoramic radiograph, and finally detected as a foreign body in mandibular occlusal radiography.
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Unusual giant sialolith of Wharton's duct p. 162
Vandana Gadve, Apurva Mohite, Kshitij Bang, SR Shenoi
DOI:10.4103/0975-962X.174594  PMID:27795655
Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. Most of the salivary calculi are small in size. Some calculi that reach several centimeters are reported as megaliths or giant calculi in the literature. They may occur in any of the salivary gland ducts but are most common in Wharton's duct and in the submandibular gland. This report presents clinical and radiographical sign of an unusually large sialolith. A patient came with pain in the floor of mouth. There was a swelling on floor of mouth on the left side. Radiographical examination revealed large irregular radio-opaque mass superimposed on left lateral incisor to molar areas. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland duct sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the etiology, diagnosis, and its treatment.
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